Thermal Manikin Specifications

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Strong construction - a real tool

One important requirements was, that the thermal manikins had to be strong enough to stand "hard work." It is used in research institutions, car factories, clothing factories and ventilation companies and for building research all over the world.

In some universities the thermal manikin will be used by young students every day. It will be dressed and undressed, moved from one room to another and installed in test facilities like car cabins, walking machines and climate chambers. The manikin will also often be moved out from the university.

Many Years of development and experience with that kind of work have resulted in a very stable and reliable thermal manikin.

Description of the body

The body is cast in high quality glass fibre, supplied with aluminium rings on which the joints are mounted. A pure nickel wire is carefully wound on the surface and embedded in a strong and heat conducting polyester and painted with very strong dull colour.

The manikin is supplied with very stable aluminium joints in hands, shoulders, neck, knees and hips. The result is, that only one of all PT manikins ever was damaged mechanically. It was dropped in a stair case. The repair was only four hours and was made free of charge by PT Teknik.

In order to make transport easy, the manikin can without use of tools be divided in two parts, and the hands can be removed (in Pernille-model). That makes it very easy to place the manikin in the luggage compartment of a car with the power supply and a laptop.

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Standing - sitting - walking

The manikin must be able to move in all directions and sit, walk and stand naturally while it also is important, that the areas are not changing and clothes is not stuck in the joints.

It was solved by cutting heaps in carefully chosen angles, that allows the legs to move as close to natural as possible. Combined with knee joints, that can bend 90 dgr. And rotate 100 dgr. Almost any position of the legs is possible.

To prevent damage from an attempt to force the heap joint perpendicular to the normal direction, the joint is constructed so it allows these movements by suppressing a large spring. The shoulders can move 300 degrees. It is secured against perpendicular movements as shoulders, which also makes it much easier to dress the manikin.

The head can move left - right.

The hands can rotate and they can be removed (in Pernille-model) for transport and to make dressing of the manikin easier.

For standing or hanging a line is fixed to the hip joints inside the manikin and lead through the upper body and head. That makes a very reliable and very much used manner of placing the thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The line can also be used to prevent the manikin from falling from a chair.

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Human form

Wiring and body shape

The wire is placed all over every section without any compromises. The wires is carefully placed with a precise calculated distance in order to have uniform heat Loss over the entire section. To further improvement the wire is embedded in a new heat conducting compound, which ensures a uniformity as good as it possible can be done. Only 2.2 mm between wires.

Dense wiring embedded in heat-conducting compound ensures excellent uniformity

Another demand on a thermal manikin, that can be used for study of air flow around the body, heat loss in different environments and a realistic air flow in the breathing zones, is a detailed and natural shape. The PT manikin is very close to natural shape and very detailed.

No compromises in shape of body. Even natural fingers and face (available in "Pernille"-model).

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Easy transport

The manikin must be easy to move from one place to another. Therefore external equipment must be limited. The data logging is done in the pc, and the control electronic is inside the manikin.

Only one 5 mm control cable

From PC to manikin only one 5mm cable is needed. It is connected to RS 232 or USB. Power cable and control cable are located at the backside of the waist. The cables can be moved to other places if required.

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Intelligent circuits inside

Each section has its own unique micro controller system which calculates the temperature of the entire surface by measuring the resistance of the nickel wire, calculates the needed power and controls a power switch for heating.

The controllers are designed with great attention to self heating and they have negligible power consumption. The result is a fast, stable and precise control.

The power is a 24 V 40 Hz. pulse signal, where the heat flow is controlled as on / of timing. The power supply is continuously measured, and the value forms part of the power calculation. The result is, that the manikin is totally independent on variations in supply voltage. The manikin will run on 15 V to 28 V.

This makes the manikin ideal for running on a car battery, which will change from 28 V to 20 V over time.

All settings and calibrations are also stored inside each section. That means, that a section can work separated from the manikin. It also means, that the manikin can be used with different computers, without worrying about calibration or settings.

A connector board in upper and lower body part connects all controllers together and connects the two half bodies. All controllers are connected to the PC. with only one 5mm cable to the serial port. The PC. is only monitoring, and can be any PC.

Four control modes, easy set up, automatic calibration and internal data logging

The manikin is set up from a PC with Windows (any newer version).

The software contains four control modes:

  1. No heating (operative temperature)
  2. Heating to a fixed set point
  3. Heating with fixed heat loss
  4. Following a comfort equation - the mode closest to human. See manual

The manikin is in all modes secured against over heating in software and with mechanical security switches.

All parameters can be set up from the PC on each part separately. The values are stored in the manikin.

The software in the controllers is logging temperature on all sections 40 times each second. 8 times each second the heat loss is updated based on 5 temperature measurements, after the highest and the lowest are ignored.

The software in the manikin can be updated from PC, when new is available. All parameters can be exported from the manikin and mailed to PT-Teknik for checking.

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Features of the PC software

  • Calibration program
  • Stability criteria (indicates steady state)
  • Automatic clo. calculation
  • Graph
  • "Thermo vision picture"
  • Data logging
  • Automatic detection of steady state
  • Total average
  • Average of two creatable groups of sections
  • Difference of the two groups
  • Breathe control.

Special features can be embedded by request.

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Technical data


Power supply

Alternative powering
Heat loss
Female: 168 cm, Male: 175 cm
20 Kg
100 / 240 V in
24 V DC out
206 X 132 X 260 mm
8 Kg
15 - 28 V DC
0 to 200 W/m2
0,1 W/m2
18 to 42 Dgr. C
0,1 dgr. C
0,2 dgr. C
40 Hz

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Thermal Manikin inhale Thermal Manikin exhale
Thermal Manikin exhale heaterController for gas valve and respirator

The respirator system consists of a pump for inhaling, a pump for exhaling and a controller.

Pump control and connection:
The controller is connected to the PC on the same RS 485 line as the thermal manikin. When the lung is connected, the software will automatically find it next time it is loaded.

Breathing is controlled from the PC. Four periods are individually controlled: inhale - pause - exhale - pause. Inhale volume and exhale volume are also individually controlled from the PC.

Inhale pump:

Air for analysing is taken from a T - connector at the output of the inhale pump. The other side of the connector is connected to a tube long enough to make sure, the analyser can not suck fresh air in backwards from the end of the tube, in case the analyser is sampling at a moment when the pump is not running.

Gas valve (optional)

Gas valve
Exhale pump is equipped with a valve for tracer gas. The valve is active synchronized with the pump and indicated with red light from the valve switch on the pump. When the valve is not active, the gas is passing through the valve to outlet tube which must be let out to a place, where it does not interfere with the measurements.

This is done in order to obtain a constant pressure in the tracer gas system and tubes. When active, the valve passes the gas to the inlet of the exhale pump, where it is mixed with air.

Exhale heater (optional)

The controller contains a heating system for the exhale air. The temperature is controlled and displayed on the pc.

Humidifier (optional)

The exhale air is humidified to near 100 percent rh.

Principal plane and angles of exhalation flow from nose:

Exhale from the mouth is horizontal. Exhale from the mouth is 45 degrees lower. The angle between the nostrils is 30 degrees.

Comfort meter (optional)

Thermal Manikin Comfort Meter 1    Thermal Manikin Comfort Meter 2

Comfort meter measures equivalent temperature, opearative temperature, PMV and PDD. It also enables automatic clo. measurement based on the equivalent temperature.

Standalone Head (no body)

Thermal Manikin head 2    Thermal Manikin head 1

Standalone manikin head capable of inhaling and exhaling.

Custom modules are made by customer request

Almost anything is possible. Contact PT Teknik for more info.

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